Dr. Michael J. Scianamblo examines the envelope of motion in root canal preparation with a current review of the literature
Schilder (1974) was the first clinician to provide a detailed discussion of the root canal preparation referring to the procedure as cleaning and shaping and to outline specific design objectives, which included a continuously tapering shape, maintenance of the original anatomy, an apex that is as small as practical, and conservation of tooth structure.
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- Arias A, Singh R, and Peters OA. Torque and force Induced by ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Next during shaping of large and small root canals in extracted teeth. J Endod. 2014;40(7): 973–976.
- Berutti, E, Alovisi, M, Pastorelli, MA, Chiandussi, G, Scotti, N and Pasqualini, D. Energy consumption of ProTaper Next X1 after glide path with PathFiles and ProGlider. J Endod. 2014; 40(12): 2015-2018.
- Blum JY, Machtou, P, Esber S, Micallef, JP. Analysis of forces developed during root canal preparation with the balanced force technique. Int Endod J. 1997;30(6):386-396.
- Bürklein S, Mathey D, Schäfer E. Shaping ability of ProTaper NEXT and BT-RaCe nickel-titanium instruments in severely curved root canals. Int Endod J. 2015;48(8): 774-781.
- Berutti E, Alovisi M, Pastorelli MA, Chiandussi G, Scotti N, Pasqualini D. Energy consumption of ProTaper Next X1 after glide path with PathFiles and ProGlider. J Endod. 2014; 40(12):2015–2018.
- Calberson FL, Deroose CA, Hommez GM, Raes H, De Moor RJ. Shaping ability of GT Rotary Files in simulated resin root canals. Int J Endod. 2002;35(7):607-614.
- Capar ID, Arslan H, Akcay M and Uysal B: Effects of ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and HyFlex instruments on crack formation in dentin. J Endod. 2014;40(9):1482–1484.
- Capar ID, Arslan H, Akcay M, Ertas H. An in vitro comparison of apically extruded debris and instrumentation times with ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, Twisted File Adaptive, and HyFlex instruments. J Endod. 2014;40(10):1638–1641.
- Cheung GS, Peng B, Bian Z, Shen Y, Darvell BW. Defects in ProTaper S1 instruments after clinical use: fractographic examination. Int Endod J. 2005;38(11):802-809.
- Chow DY, Stover SE, Bahcall JK, Jaunberzins A, Toth JM. An in vitro comparison of the rake angles between K3 and ProFile endodontic file systems. J Endod. 2005;31(3):180-182.
- Coffae KP, Brilliant JD. The effect of serial preparation versus nonserial preparation on tissue removal in the root canals of extracted mandibular human molars. J Endod. 1975;1(6):211-214.
- Elnaghy AM and Elsaka, SE: Assessment of the mechanical properties of ProTaper Next nickel-titanium rotary files J Endod. 2014; 40:1830–183.
- Elnaghy AM, Elsaka SE. Evaluation of root canal transportation, centering ratio, and remaining dentin thickness associated with ProTaper Next instruments with and without glide path. J Endod. 2014;40(12):2053–2056.
- Esposito, PT, Cunningham, CJ. A comparison of canal preparation with nickel-titanium and stainless steel instruments. J Endod. 1995;21(4):173-176.
- Glosson CR, Haller RH, Dove SB, Del Rio CE. A comparison of root canal preparations using N-Ti hand, Ni-Ti engine-driven and K-flex endodontic instruments. J Endod. 21(3):146-151.
- Koçak MM, Çiçek E, Koçak S, Sağlam BC, Yılmaz N. Apical extrusion of debris using ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Next rotary systems. Int Endod J. 2015;48(3):283-286.
- Kum KY, Spängberg L, Cha BY, Il-Young J, Msd, Seung-Jong L, Chan-Young L. Shaping ability of three ProFile rotary instrumentation techniques in simulated resin root canals. J Endod. 2000;26(12):719-723.
- Maillefer, PL, Aeby, F, inventors; Maillefer Instruments, S.A. Instrument for boring dental radicular canals. US Patent 5,746,597. May 5, 1998.
- Pérez-Higueras JJ, Arias A, de la Macorra JC, Peters OA. Differences in cyclic fatigue resistance between ProTaper Next and ProTaper Universal instruments at different levels. J Endod. 2014;40(9):1477–1481.
- Nguyen HH, Fong H, Paranjpe A, Flake NM, Johnson JD, Peters OA. Evaluation of the resistance to cyclic fatigue among ProTaper Next, ProTaper Universal, and Vortex Blue rotary instruments. J Endod. 2014;40(8):1190–1193.
- Pasqualini D, Alovisi M, Cemenasco A, Mancini L, Paolino DS, Bianchi CC, Roggia A, Scotti N, Berutti E. Micro–computed tomography evaluation of Protaper Next and BioRace shaping outcomes in maxillary first molar curved canals. J Endod. 2015; 41(10):1706-1710.
- Peters OA, Schönenberger K, Laib A. Effects of four Ni-Ti preparation techniques on root canal geometry assessed by micro computed tomography. Int Endo J. 2001;34(3):221-230.
- Roane JB, Sabala CL, Duncanson MG Jr. The “balanced force” concept for instrumentation of curved canals. J Endod. 1985;11(5):203-211.
- Scianamblo, MJ. A contemporary approach to cleaning and shaping the root canal system emphasizing “early coronal enlargement.” In: Castellucci A. Endodontics. Chapter 16. Florence, Italy: Il Tridente. 2005:470-501.
- Scianamblo, MJ, inventor. Critical path endodontic instruments for preparing endodontic cavity spaces. US Patent 6,942,484. Sept 13, 2005.
- Scianamblo, MJ, inventor. Bending endodontic instruments. EP Patent 1,709,934 B1. March 30, 2011.
- Scianamblo, MJ, inventor. Endodontic instruments for preparing endodontic cavity spaces. US Patent 7,955,078. June 7, 2011.
- Scianamblo, MJ, inventor. Swaggering Endodontic Instruments. US Patent 8,454,361. June 4, 2013.
- Scianamblo, MJ, inventor. Swaggering Endodontic instruments. US Patent 20150173853. June 25, 2015.
- Spanaki-Voreadi AP, Kerezoudis NP, Zinelis S. Failure mechanism of ProTaper Ni-Ti rotary instruments during clinical use: fractographic analysis. Int Endod J. 2006; 39(3):171-178.
- Schäfer, E. Relationship between design features of endodontic instruments and their properties. Part 2. Instrumentation of curved canals. J Endod. 1999; 25(1):56-59.
- Schäfer E, Florek H. Efficiency of rotary nickel-titanium K3 instruments compared with stainless steel hand K-Flexofile. Part 1. Shaping ability in simulated curved canals. Int Endo J. 2003; 36(3):199-207.
- Schilder H. Cleaning and shaping the root canal. Dent Clin North Am. 1974;18(2):269-296.
- Walia HM, Brantley WA, Gerstein H. An initial investigation of the bending and torsional properties of Nitinol root canal files. J Endod. 1988;14(7):346-351.
- Weine FS, Kelly RF, Lio PJ. The effect of preparation procedures on original canal shape and on apical formation shape. J Endod. 1975;1(8):255-262.
- Yao JH, Schwartz SA, Beeson TJ. Cyclic fatigue of three types of rotary nickel-titanium files in a dynamic model. J Endod. 2006;32(1):55–57.