Drs. Mario Luis Zuolo and Arthur de Siqueira Zuolo present clinical detection, diagnosis, and management of a non-vital central incisor with an open apex
The treatment of immature necrotic teeth with non-vital pulps and open apices often presents a challenge to the clinician. Cleaning and shaping the thin canal walls, controlling the infection, and performing a satisfactory sealing of the apex sometimes are not possible.1 In most cases, the treatment involves the induction of apical closure by apexification procedures to allow more favorable conditions for the conventional treatment.
- Trope M. Treatment of immature teeth with non-vital pulps and apical periodontitis. Endod Topics. 2006;14:51–59.
- Rafter M. Apexification: a review. Dent Traumatol. 2005;21(1):1-8.
- Granath LE. Some notes on the treatment of traumatized incisors in children. Odont Rev. 1959;10:272.
- Morfis AS, Siskos G. Apexification with the use of calcium hydroxide: a clinical study. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 1991;16(1):13–19.
- Kleier DJ, Barr ES. A study of endodontically apexified teeth. Endod Dent Traumatol. 1991;7(3):112–117.
- Walia T, Chawla HS, Gauba K. Management of wide open apices in non-vital permanent teeth with Ca(OH)2 paste. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2000;25(1):51–56.
- Dominguez Reyes A, Munoz Munoz L, Aznar Martin T. Study of calcium hydroxide apexification in 26 young permanent incisors. Dent Traumatol. 2005;21(3):141-145.
- Sübay RK, Kayataş M. Dens invaginatus in an immature maxillary lateral incisor: a case report of complex endodontic treatment. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;102(2):e37-41.
- El-Meligy OA, Avery DR. Comparison of apexification with mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide. Pediatr Dent. 2006;28(3):248-253.
- Andreasen JO, Farik B, Munksgaard EC. Long-term calcium hydroxide as a root canal dressing may increase risk of root fracture. Dent Traumatol. 2002;18(3):134–137.
- Andreasen JO, Munksgaard EC, Bakland LK. Comparison of fracture resistance in root canals of immature sheep teeth after filling with calcium hydroxide or MTA. Dent Traumatol. 2006;22(3):154–156.
- Heling I, Lustmann J, Hover R, Bichacho N. Complications of apexification resulting from poor patient compliance: report of case. ASDC J Dent Child. 1999;66(6):415–418.
- Torabinejad M, Chivian N. Clinical applications of mineral trioxide aggregate. J Endod. 1999;25(3):197–205.
- Torabinejad M, Hong CU, McDonald F, Pitt Ford TR. Physical and chemical properties of a new root-end filling material. J Endod. 1995;21(7):349–353.
- Shabahang S, Torabinejad M, Boyne PP, Abedi H, McMillan P. A comparative study of root-end induction using osteogenic protein-1, calcium hydroxide, and mineral trioxide aggregate in dogs. J Endod. 1999;25(1):1–5.
- Simon S, Rilliard F, Berdal A, Machtou P. The use of mineral trioxide aggregate in one-visit apexification treatment: a prospective study. Int Endod J. 2007;40(3):186–197.
- Steinig TH, Regan JD, Gutmann JL. The use and predictable placement of mineral trioxide aggregate in one-visit apexification cases. Aust Endod J. 2003;29(1):34–42.
- Witherspoon DE, Small JC, Regan JD, Nunn M. Retrospective analysis of open apex teeth obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate. J Endod. 2008;34(10):1171-1176.
- Mente J, Hage N, Pfefferle T, Koch MJ, Dreyhaupt J, Staehle HJ, Friedman S. Mineral trioxide aggregate apical plugs in teeth with open apical foramina: a retrospective analysis of treatment outcome. J Endod. 2009;35(10):1354–1358.
- Nayar S, Bishop K, Alani A. A report on the clinical and radiographic outcomes of 38 cases of apexification with mineral trioxide aggregate. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent. 2009;17(4):150–156.
- Holden DT, Schwartz SA, Kirkpatrick TC, Schindler WG. Clinical outcomes of artificial root-end barriers with mineral trioxide aggregate in teeth with immature apices. J Endod. 2008;34(7):812–817.
- Seltzer S, Sinai I, August D. Periodontal effects of root perforations before and during endodontic procedures. J Dent Res. 1970;49(2):332–339.
- de Chevigny , Dao TT, Basrani BR, Marquis V, Farzaneh M, Abitbol S, Friedman S. Treatment outcome in endodontics: the Toronto study — phases 3 and 4: orthograde retreatment. J Endod. 2008;34(2):131-137.
- Angelus. MTA REPAIR HP. http://angelus.ind.br/MTA-REPAIR-HP-292.html. Accessed April 4, 2016.
- Molven O, Halse A, Grung B. Incomplete healing (scar tissue) after periapical surgery — radiographic findings 8 to 12 years after treatment. J Endod. 1996;2(5):264-268.
MTA HP product is under FDA approval and will be launched in the US and Canada during 2016.